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Today, this tension is achieved by two methods:. The thermally tensioned ring is one of the cheapest methods to induce tension in the piston rings but it is restricted to smaller engines. In this method the piston ring is machined from the circular pot to the required cylinder diameter.
After making the ring, a gap is cut and a metal piece is inserted in the gap, which expands the ring and induces a tension in the ring. After expanding, the ring and the distance piece is placed inside the oven to relieve any stresses induced during the process.
The major disadvantage of this process is that the ring loses its tension because of the heat of the engine. The oval pot cam turning method is expensive but the rings produced from this method retain their tension while working in the heat of the engine. The rings are machined in a cam turning lathe. By changing the cam shape and the oval form, the pressure distribution around the ring is changed and a tension is induced. The piston rings used in the marine engines should be harder than the liner material in which they are used.
To provide additional strength to the piston rings, some materials such as chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium, nickel and copper are added to them. Chrome plating is one of the most common methods of surface treatment.
It is generally used on the running surface of the piston rings and on the landing surfaces i. Chromium has the advantage of high wear resistance, low friction and corrosion resistance properties. The coating done should be of high quality and be able to operate under all conditions inside the engine without damaging or peeling off or breaking.
It is also one of the methods used for plating the rings. In this method, a gas mixture is passed through an arc generated between the tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper tube. A very high temperature is thus generated and the gas molecules start to disintegrate. In this plasma state level, carbides and ceramic are sprayed as fine powder, which melts and coats the ring surface.
The disadvantage of chrome and plasma coating is that the thickness of coating and the bonding to parent metal is limited. A new method of laser hardening treatment is also being used. This produces a wear resistant layer, which is several times thicker than that of the conventional coatings. Sometimes, copper is plated directly over the chrome layer of the ring. The plating thickness is very thin and the life of this is long enough to cater for running in period.
Plasma coated rings are graphite coated to cater with the running-in periods. Thus wearing rings are placed in between the casing and impeller. There are two such rings in an centrifugal pump which wear down in event of a contact to save the pump. You might like to hold on a little and refresh your knowledge on centrifugal pump!
If you have read the basics or too brilliant to skip; you must know that the efficiency of centrifugal pump is affected by its clearance area. The more is the clearance area more liquid will leak from discharge or high pressure side to the pump inlet. This negatively affects the overall pump efficiency increasing ranking cost per output volume. So a wear ring not just protect from any possible damage but also helps improve pump efficiency.
A wear ring affects the working and performance of an centrifugal pump in a significant way. Centrifugal pumps with high wear ring clearance show an increase in its thrust and vibration. Uneven vibration can then further leads to loose bearings and contact between moving and stationary parts of the pump.
As the clearance increase due to wear down;more and more fluid tends to backflow through the clearance reducing pump efficiency. Since the volume of water flowing through the space increase; the rate of cavitation increase too for the given clearance area.
Sudden increase in cavitation followed by decrease in pump efficiency make the pump rotor less stiff; reducing the rotor damping. It is being found in various test conducted on pumps; that there is more change in heat and low pressure area for the wear down of both rings than for just the rear one. It is the tendency of the centrifugal pump to expand its low pressure area; towards the volute with increase in clearance area. In the mean time the high pressure zone tends to move towards the pump inlet affecting natural working of the pump.
When a centrifugal pump undergoes negative effects such as reduced rotor damping, stiffness and efficiency along with increase in cavitation and vibration in general; the pump do require more and more power to operate with increased NPSH Net positive suction head. This many a times makes the pump uneconomical for the industrial application. This is why a wear ring clearance is monitored time to time and replaced when needed. Measuring wear ring clearance is not as easy as it sounds.
It require quite some effort, safety and a bit of experience and knowledge of how to use dial gauge and filler gauge for the measurement. To successfully conduct the measurement of wear ring clearance one need to follow the following steps; isolation, dismantling, Inspection, measurement and Reassembly. The key step of a pump isolation before dismantling is to cut off its power supply.
Fuses are removed from the pump start panel to isolate power supply to the centrifugal pump. Once the system itself is isolated; mark and remove electrical connections to the pump motor one by one. While you may or not be required to remove the pump from its motor assembly all together, but if you do; remove the couplings, bearings and shaft assembly of the motor to isolate pump to its motor.
Generally just to measure wear ring clearance it is a common practice to skip this process altogether but is highly recommended. Now at last remove the bolts on the suction and discharge port flange to isolate pump from its connected lines. Remove all connections including fluctuating line, instrumental connections, drain line and other accessories attached to the pump. Remove any coupling guard or spacer according to the pump design.
At last connect the chain block shackle to the pump eye-bolt to lift the pump and place it on a secure position to inspect and dismantle. It is nor required to dismantle whole pump assembly to measure wear ring clearance specially for a flat type wear ring. It can be done just by removing the cover of the pump in an axially mounted centrifugal pump. For some we might need to take out the impeller to measure the wear ring clearance; and for others he whole assembly is taken out and dismantled.
Although as wear ring clearance is measured mostly as a part of preventive and break down maintenance; it is a common practice among, engineers, technician and pump operators to dismantle the whole assembly for inspection and measurement. Bring essential spare parts such as gaskets, o-rings and ball or packing ring to replace it with the old once disassembled. You may or nor require to change other parts; such as wear ring after the inspection for damage, wear and tear.
We need to remove the nuts from the gland bolts in order to remove the upper half of the pump casing. Once done put an eye bolt on top and lift the upper half with the use of chain block and shackle. Now, using slings around the shaft to lift the rotating part of the pump. Care must be taken while it is placed in secured place for further disassembly or wear ring measurement. For U and L type of wear rings remove the wearing covers, packing rings, lantern rings and the gasket along with stuffing box bushings; to remove the casing and impeller rings for inspection and measurement.
Wear rings are inspected upon removing from pump assembly. Other than that; grub screw and shaft screws are to be cleaned and inspected for any sign of damage. Inspect the sealing ring, o-ring, shaft, key-way, impeller and lock nut for any sign of wear or damage. Give a clean blow to all parts of the pump to remove suspended particles and dust. Check for sign of impact pitting and corrosion on the impeller blades. Do appropriate maintenance when required but replace it with spare one when needed.
There is nothing to be panic or worry about as some design came with impeller; with in build wear surface as an integral part of impeller itself.
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